Qualities and Long-Term Effects of Mediation

  • Peter Kaiser (University of Vechta)
  • Gerald Eisenkopf orcid logo (University of Vechta)
  • Andrej Marc Gabler (Court of Appeal in Schleswig, Schleswig-Holsteinisches Oberlandesgericht)
  • Felix L. B. Lehmann (Regional Court in Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany)


To clarify the long-term effects and sustainability of mediation, we reviewed approaches and findings from mediation research, psychology, and counseling and therapy research. On this basis, we have developed a hypothetical model of mediation qualities that we tested in a prospective longitudinal study. To this end, we investigated the long-term effectiveness of mediation in303 escalated civil disputes of various types. We refer to main findings that indicate there are long-term effects of antecedent structural qualities such as personal items of the participants, mediator qualifications, and as well as system and conflict issues, but also process qualities such as conduct of negotiations, explanation of all concerns and issues, and honesty of participants. Outcome qualities of the agreement also had long-term effects like contract compliance, or satisfaction. Sustainability qualities had long-term effects like time and cost savings, long-term fairness, relationship, and quality of life, satisfaction and conflict competence, and parties' attitudes toward mediation. Reflections on further research, practice and training conclude.

Keywords: negotiation research, mediation psychology, long-term outcomes, effectivity factors, prospective longitudinal study, follow-up evaluation, quality management

How to Cite:

Kaiser, P. & Eisenkopf, G. & Gabler, A. M. & Lehmann, F. L., (2022) “Qualities and Long-Term Effects of Mediation”, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 16(2), 132-164. doi:

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Published on
23 Sep 2022
Peer Reviewed