Getting off to a “Hot" Start: How the Timing of Expressed Anger Influences Relational Outcomes in Negotiation

  • David Hunsaker (NYU Shanghai)
  • Teng Zhang (Penn State Harrisburg)


While expressing anger during a negotiation can have positive effects on negotiators’ economic outcomes (e.g., a larger concession from one’s counterpart), it can also have adverse effects on negotiators’ relational outcomes (e.g., decreased trust and a damaged relationship). However, little is known about whether and how the timing of expressed anger may affect such relational outcomes. Because negotiation is a dynamic social interaction that consists of various stages or phases, anger expressed at early vs. late stages of a negotiation may lead to different responses from a counterpart. Drawing on research on the temporal effects of negotiation strategies and tactics, we predicted that anger expressed at late stages, but not early stages, of a negotiation would negatively affect the expresser’s relational outcomes because negotiators are commonly expected to transition from a competitive approach to a more cooperative one as a negotiation progresses. An online study and a face-to-face study provided consistent empirical support for this prediction. Practical implications and future directions are discussed.

Keywords: negotiation; anger expression; timing; subjective value; quantitative; experimental

Keywords: negotiation, relational outcomes, anger expression, timing, experimental

How to Cite:

Hunsaker, D. & Zhang, T., (2022) “Getting off to a “Hot" Start: How the Timing of Expressed Anger Influences Relational Outcomes in Negotiation”, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 15(4). doi:



Published on
17 Jul 2022
Peer Reviewed