Implicit Theories of Negotiation: Developing a Measure of Agreement Fluidity

  • Raymond A. Friedman
  • Robin L. Pinkley
  • William P. Bottom
  • Wu Liu
  • Michele Gelfand


Negotiation scholars generally model agreement as the terminal “endpoint” of the process. From this perspective, parties instantaneously realize their outcomes when agreement is reached. Although this conception may also reflect the understanding of some negotiators (those with what we call a “fixed agreement” mindset), we argue that others actually envision agreement as one step in an ongoing process (what we call a “fluid agreement” mindset). To spur research on this topic, we report initial progress on development of a new measure of agreement fluidity. Basic psychometric properties for this measure were established using six correlational samples that demonstrate aspects of both discriminant and convergent validity. Fixed agreement mindset appears to predict important behaviors during and after the negotiation process.

Keywords: negotiation, mindset, personality, entity theory, agreements, contract

How to Cite:

Friedman, R. & Pinkley, R. & Bottom, W. & Liu, W. & Gelfand, M., (2019) “Implicit Theories of Negotiation: Developing a Measure of Agreement Fluidity”, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 13(2), 127-150. doi:

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Published on
07 Aug 2019
Peer Reviewed