Overcoming Initial Anchors: The Effect of Negotiators’ Dispositional Control Beliefs

  • Shaul Shalvi
  • Simone Moran
  • Ilana Ritov


Applying a multi‐issue integrative negotiation scenario, we explored the relationship between negotiators’ internal–external (I–E) locus of control orientations, initial offers, and final negotiation outcomes. Focusing on the noninitiating party, we found that the degree to which initial offer recipients were internally versus externally oriented moderated the extent to which their final outcome was influenced by the initial offer they received. In comparison to externally oriented initial offer recipients, internally oriented recipients were less influenced by the proposed initial offer and managed to obtain more self favorable negotiation outcomes. This outcome advantage was due to the fact, that independent of the I–E orientation of the other negotiating party, internally oriented recipients reached agreements with higher total joint pie than externally oriented recipients and also managed to maintain a fair share of the pie.

Keywords: anchoring, heuristics, negotiation, decision making, locus of control, individual differences

How to Cite:

Shalvi, S. & Moran, S. & Ritov, I., (2010) “Overcoming Initial Anchors: The Effect of Negotiators’ Dispositional Control Beliefs”, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 3(3), 232--248. doi:

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Published on
05 Jul 2010
Peer Reviewed